Causes of AIDS in Africa

HIV could never kill enough T cells

Duesberg, (1992a)  stated that HIV infects on the average only 0.1% (1 out of 500 to 3000) of  T-cells  in AIDS patients, and at least 3% of all T-cells are regenerated during the two days it takes a retrovirus to infect a cell. HIV could never kill enough T cells to cause immunodeficiency. Thus, even if HIV killed every infected T cell, it could deplete T cells only at 1/30 of their normal rate of regeneration, not considering activated regeneration.

Gallo agreed with Duesberg that 1 in 10000 T cells are infected with HIV (Booth, 1988).  Baltimore and Feinberg, 1989 also stated that in the late stage of AIDS disease, HIV infects 1 in  100 CD4+ T cells or 1 in 400 mononuclear cells.  Furthermore, the study of Al-Bayati  et al. (1990) also showed that the rate of  regeneration in the damaged thymus and lymphoid tissue of mice treated with a lymphotoxic agent (vanadate) is very rapid.  In this study,  a total of 120 mice were treated with metavanadate solution (15.5 mg/kg). Severe necrosis in the thymus of treated mice were  observed at 2 days following treatment and the thymus healed  completely in about 10 days.

In addition to illicit drug and alcohol abuse, homosexuals are also heavy users of alkyl nitrites that relax the anal muscle and facilitate anal sex.   It has been stated that the use of alkyl nitrites permeated the gay life by 1977 (Al-Bayati, 1999).  Some of the studies cited by  Duesberg, (1992a and 1992b)  clearly showed the heavy use of alkyl nitrites and illicit drugs by homosexuals. These are:  1)  86.4% of  420 homosexual men attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in New York, Atlanta and San Francisco reported that they frequently used amyl-and butyl nitrites as sexual stimulants and the frequency of nitrite use was proportional to the number of sexual partners; 2) a total of 170 male homosexuals from sexual disease clinics, including 50 with KS and pneumonia, and 120 without AIDS were surveyed showing 50-60% had used cocaine, 50-70% amphetamines, 40% marijuana, 10% heroin, over 50% had also used prescription drugs, about 80%  had past or current gonorrhea, 40-70% had syphilis, 15% mononucleosis, 50% hepatitis, and 30% parasitic diarrhea; 3)  A study of a group of 359 homosexual men in San Francisco reported in 1987 that 84% had used cocaine, 82% alkyl nitrites, 64% amphetamines, 51% methaqualone and  41% barbiturates; 4) a total of  3916 self-identified American homosexual men were surveyed, among which  83% had used one, and about 60% of them used two or more drugs with sexual activities during the previous six months (similar drug use has been reported from European homosexuals at risk); and  6) survey of homosexual men from Boston, conducted between 1985 and 1988, documented that among 206 HIV-positives, 92% had used nitrite inhalants, 73% cocaine, 39% amphetamines, 29% lysergic acid in addition to six other psychoactive drugs as sexual stimulants.

Homosexuals usually suffer from acute and chronic rectal and gastrointestinal diseases that dictate the heavy therapeutic use of rectal steroids.  Among 7 selected studies that included 736 patients (97% of them were homosexual or bisexual men) who were infected with HIV and/or had AIDS. They show clearly that homosexual men suffer from extensive rectal and gastrointestinal problems that result in  chronic use of  therapeutic rectal steroids (Al-Bayati, 1999).

Review of the medical literature revealed that the short and the long term use of glucocorticoids at therapeutic doses, resulted in a variety of effects on the immune system that range from a transient reduction in T cells count in peripheral blood to the development of  full blown AIDS.  Fauci, (1975) and Fauci et al., (1976)  described in detail  the effects of  corticosteroids on the immune system. These effects resemble the immune abnormalities that are found in patients suffering from AIDS or Idiopathic CD4 T cells lymphocytopnea (ICL) which are also described by Fauci et al.1998.  For example, Fauci et al., 1976 stated that “we have reviewed many aspects of the host defenses that are altered by corticosteroids, and the combined effects of these changes must be considered in trying to understand the relation between corticosteroids and infections. Since the defect with corticosteroids is broad, it is not surprising that many types of infections seem to occur more often in patients treated with corticosteroids. Of the bacterial infections, staphylococcal and Gram-negative infections, as well as tuberculosis and Listeria infections, probably occur most often. Certain types of viral, fungal, and parasitic infections also occur often. Patients with lupus erythematous, rheumatoid arthritis, and renal transplant have more infection with steroid administration. Studies of bronchial aerosols showed that with higher doses of steroid in the aerosol, Candida infections of the larynx and pharynx occurred more often”.

In addition,  Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) can develop in patients chronically treated with glucocorticoids independently of HIV. For example, KS developed eight months after initiation of prednisone treatment (40 mg per day for three months) in a 58-year-old man with systemic rheumatoid disease. He also had lymphocytopenia (896/µL),  reduction of T4 cells (215/µL ), and T4/ T8  ratio of 0.7. This man was HIV-negative as tested by western blot (Schottstaedt et al., 1987). In addition, there are many cases who developed KS following treatment with glucocorticoids. They had reversal of their lesions after the termination of the treatment (Al-Bayati, 1999).

Furthermore, review of the medical literature revealed that the majority of AIDS patients suffer from metabolic and endocrine abnormalities. Changes were observed in the adrenal gland function of 182 AIDS patients (Al-Bayati, 1999). The high prevalence of adrenal insufficiency among AIDS patients provides very strong evidence that AIDS in these patients is caused by the use of corticosteroids. Fauci et al., (1998)  stated that endocrine and metabolic abnormalities are frequently seen in HIV-infected individuals and most HIV-infected individuals studied at autopsy had involvement of adrenal glands. The most common abnormality seen in HIV infected individuals is hyponatremia, seen in up to 30 percents of patients. They also stated that the presence of a low sodium level combined with a high serum potassium level in a patient should alert one to the possibility of adrenal insufficiency and adrenocortical insufficiency as seen following prolonged administration of excess glucocorticoids. However; the use of  corticosteroids by AIDS patients was not considered by Fauci and his colleagues.

Furthermore, as stated above, that the CD4+ T cells depletion in the peripheral blood of HIV -positive homosexual men was reversed after the termination of their treatment with glucocorticoids and at least 77% of 2,349 patients participated in the four major AZT clinical trials (1987-1992)  were HIV-negative prior to their treatment with AZT. These studies demonstrate clearly that HIV is not the cause of AIDS (Al-Bayati, 1999).

Some studies show increases in CD4+ T cells in HIV-positive individual after treatment with the antiviral drugs (Al-Bayati, 1999). This information was interpreted as a good response to the medications. On the contrary, the elevation of T cells is not a good response in these conditions, but rather, it indicates  severe tissue damage and infection. This explains the death of the patients following treatment with these drugs  For example, the CD4+ T cells were also increased following the treatment of HIV negative nurses with AZT who took AZT as a prophylactic. They developed severe symptoms following 3 weeks of treatment with AZT (Al-Bayati, 1999). In addition to the failure of the antiviral drugs, AIDS patients suffering from immune deficiency are treated with glucocorticoids (Fauci et al., 1998). This practice is not supported by any known biomedical mechanism of action.

II. Causes and pathogenesis of AIDS in infants and children in USA and Europe: As of January 1, 1997, the number of infants and children in USA diagnosed with AIDS was 6,891 and ninety percent of  these cases had mothers who were drug users (Fauci et al., 1998; Al-Bayati, 1999).  The prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse during pregnancy is very high both in the USA and Europe.  The results of nine large studies surveying the prevalence of drug use in relation to the outcome of pregnancy in the USA showed that up to 15% of pregnant women used cocaine during pregnancy based on a positive urine test. The impact of illicit drug and alcohol abuse during pregnancy on infant health is very serious as shown in nine studies that included 1,295 drug-using mothers and 4,293 nonusers. The use of cocaine during pregnancy was usually associated with a high prevalence of premature births and low birth weights. Drug exposed infants usually had immature lung profiles and other serious health problems that were treated with glucocorticoids (Al-Bayati, 1999).

Fauci et al.,  (1998) also explained the serious impact of illicit drugs on the pregnant mothers and her infants.  They stated that “women who abuse cocaine have reported major derangement in menstrual cycle function, including galactorrhea, amenorrhea, and infertility. Chronic cocaine abuse may cause persistent hyperprolactinemia as a consequence of cocaine-induced disorders of dopaminergic regulation of prolactin secretion by the pituitary. Cocaine abuse, particularly the smoking of crack by pregnant women, has been implicated as causing an increased risk of congenital malformations and of prenatal cardiovascular diseases in the infants. Cocaine abuse per se is probably not the sole reason for these prenatal disorders since many problems associated with maternal cocaine abuse, including poor nutrition and health care status as well as polydrug abuse, also contribute to the risk of prenatal diseases”. Furthermore, Fauci et al., (1998) also reported that a special case of opiate withdrawal is seen in the newborn passively addicted by the mother’s drug misuse during pregnancy. Some level of addiction develops in 50 to 90 percent of children of heroin-dependent mothers. The syndrome consists of irritability, crying, and tremor in 80%; increased reflexes, increased respiratory rate, diarrhea, and hyperactivity in 60%; vomiting in 40%; and sneezing, yawning, and hiccuping in 30%. The affected child usually has a low birth weight and may be otherwise unremarkable until the second day, when symptoms are likely to begin.

The treatment of the mother expected to have a premature birth with glucocorticoids has been used as a standard procedure since 1970s.  Glucocorticoids are used to facilitate the development of the lung and to reduce the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infant. In addition, the natural cortisol levels in plasma and urine of the cocaine-exposed preterm neonates is significantly higher than in normal infants (Al-Bayati, 1999).

Infants and children with AIDS are dying from opportunistic infections as a result of malnutrition and the excessive use of therapeutic steroids to treat the wide range of illnesses in these children. For example, the opportunistic infections found at 74 autopsies of pediatric HIV/AIDS patients included 53 cases fungal infections, 31 cases viral infections, and additional opportunistic infections were due to toxoplasmosis and tuberculosis (Drut, et al., 1997).

III. Causes and pathogenesis of AIDS in hemophiliac: The medical evidence suggests that AIDS in hemophiliac patients is probably caused by the treatment with immunosuppressive agents (cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids) which have been used to prevent the development of antibodies to factors VIII and XI in patients with hemophilia (Al-Bayati, 1999). The development of antibodies against factors VIII and IX and the use of corticosteroids by the hemophilia patients were also described by Fauci et al. (1998). They described the health problems in hemophilia patients, such as the formation inhibitors for factors VIII and XI, the joint problems, and the use of immunosuppressive agent in the treatment regimen of  these  patients.  Patients with severe hemophilia have serious chronic joint problems resulting from bleeding inside the joints. This is also treated with glucocorticoids (Al-Bayati, 1999). AIDS has been reported in HIV negative and HIV positive hemophiliac patients. Duseberg, 1992a  presented the result of  17 studies showing that a total of 717  hemophiliac patients had T4/T8 ratios less than or equal to one: 329  patients (46%) of them were HIV-negative (Al-Bayati, 1999).

IV. Causes and pathogenesis of AIDS in organ transplant and/or blood transfusion patients:  As of January 1, 1997, the number of  patients who received blood transfusions, blood components or tissues then subsequently developed AIDS in USA is 7,888 (Al-Bayati, 1999). The list of adverse reactions to blood transfusion is present and the standard treatment used to prevent or cure these reactions is glucocorticoid  as stated by Fauci et., (1998).  For example,  the risk of getting an allergic reaction from a blood transfusion  is 1-4 per 100. The risk for delayed hemolytic reaction is 1 per 1,500.  In contrast, the risk of infection with HIV from blood  transfusion is 1 per 490,000 (Fauci, et. al., 1998).  However,  immune suppression as a result of the use of glucocorticoids in these patients was not investigated. Furthermore, glucocorticoids and other immunosuppressive agents are also used to prevent tissue rejection in organ transplant patients. The complications from these treatment and the list of  opportunistic diseases are also described by Fauci et al., (1998). The list  of opportunistic diseases in organ transplant patient receiving immunosuppressive agents are identical to the list of opportunistic diseases listed in Fauci et al.,  (1998) in people with AIDS.

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